Rabu, 23 Februari 2011

BAB 1
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

Definisi
An adverbial clause is a clause that functions as an adverb. An adverbial clause consists of a subject and predicated introduced by a subordinate conjunction like when,although,because,if, etc.

Penjelasan
Adverbial Clause adalah Clause yang berfungsi sebagai Adverb, yakni menerangkan kata kerja. Adverbial Clause biasanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan "arti/maksud" dari Conjunction (kata penghubung yang mendahuluinya).


Jenis-jenis Adverbial Clause antara lain:

1.Adverbial Clause of Time
Adverbial clause of time biasanya diawali subordinate conjunction seperti after, before, no sooner,while,as,when,as long as,as soon as,whenever,until,till,by the time(that),now that, once,since dll.
Contoh:
• When I was in elementary school , I had two close friends
• My mother came after night bad fallen
• Hold the parcel while I open the door
• I shall come before she comes
• Everybody in Great Britain has to go school until they are sixteen years old
• Ho got into the bus as soon as it arrive
• Since I last saw her, she has grown thin



2. Adverbial Clause of Place
Adverbial caluse of place diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti where, anywhere, wherever, whence,dll.
Contoh:
• I hid it where I can find it again
• My younger sister follows me wherever I go
• She went quickly whence you came
• Anywhere you can find it
• She put the novel where you will never find it


3. Adverbial Clause of Contrast (or Concession)
Clause yang menunjukkan adanya pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling berhubungan. Adverb clause of contrast (or concession) diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, as the time, dan relative adverb: however dan whatever.
Contoh:
• She went although it was raining
• Even if it is raining I shall come
• Event though it is raining I shall come
• Although we are rich, we are unhappy
Catatan :
However biasanya diikuti oleh adjective atau adverb, sedangkan whatever diikuti oleh noun(pronoun), vinite verb atau sebuah clause.
Contoh :
• However often I tried, I always failed
• However wide the river is, she can swim across it
• Whatever you say, I go



4.Adverbial Clause of Manner
Adverbial clause of manner biasanya didahului oleh subordinate conjunction seperti as if, as though, how dan in that.
Contoh :
• You may finish it how you like
• She did as I told him
• As you make your bed, so you must lie on it
• She looks as though she has seen a ghost



5. Adverbial Clause of Purpose
Adverbial clause of purpose diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti so that, in order that(yang keduanya berarti agar atau supaya) dll.
Contoh:
• We plant so that we can reap crops
• She must study hard in order that she may succeed
• I got up early so that I might see the sun rise
• I always learn my lessons in order that I can pass the examination



6. Adverbial Clause of Result
Adverbial clause of result diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti so that.
Contoh :
• He worked hard so that he was tired
• I was tired of waiting so that I decided to go on without her
Catatan :
Bila dalam klausa utama terdapat adjective atau adverb yang ingin ditekankan, maka so harus diletakan sebelum adjective atau adverb itu.
Contoh :
• He worked so hard that he was tired
• She was so busy that I had to go alone
• She was so weak that she could not speak
Tetapi jika dalam klausa utamanya tidak terdapat noun yang didahului adjective, maka kita harus menggunakan such (yang ditempatkan sebelum article dan adjective itu)
Contoh :
• She is such polite girl
• I bought such a good book that I learn English well



7. Adverbial Clause of Cause (reason)
Adverbial clause of cause(reason) biasanya diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti because, since, as, seeing that, now that, whereas, because of the fact that, due to the fact that,dll.
Contoh :
• I ran because I was late
• Since I believe her story, I shall have her
• As susan was her here, I will ask her to take the message
• Seeing that it’sraining, she stays at home
• Now that she was not here, I spoke to her mother
Catatan :
Since,as,seeing that dan now that selalu ditempatkan diawal kalimat, sedangkan because ditengah kalimat , namun because pun kadang-kadang ditempatkan diawal kalimat, bila alasannya yang lebih ditekankan.
Contoh:
• Because I like you, I shall help you


8. Adverbial clause of Degree
Adverbial clause of Degree biasanya diawali oleh subordinate conjunction seperti than atau relative adverb : as.
Contoh :
• she is older than she looks
• they arrived later than we thought
• he is taller than I am
• she worked as hard as she could
• I will get up as early as I can


9. Adverbial Clause of Condition
menunjukkan adanya persyaratan antara dua kejadian (peristiwa) yang berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunctions seperti if, even if, unless, in the even that, or in even that, in case, provided (that), providing (that), on condition that, if only, suppose (that), supposing (that), dll.
Contoh:
• If I here any news, I will phone you
• If you were a mouse, the cat would catch you
• Suppose (that) your house burns down, do you have enough insurance to cover such a loss.
• In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once.
• The company will agree to arbitration on condition (that) the strike is called off at once.
• We should be able to do the job for you quickly, provided (that) you give us all the necessary information
• Unless you work hard, you will fail




Referensi/ sumber :
1. TOEFL Preparation By Drs. Kardimin, M.Hum
2. Fundamentals of ENGLISH GRAMMAR second edition By Betty Schrampfer Azar
3. Understanding and Using ENGLISH GRAMMAR second edition BY Betty Schrampfer Azar
4. Modern English Exercise For Non Native Speaker Part II By Marcela Frank
5. Work book for intermediate student LIA
6. English Grammar In Use By Raymond Murphy

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