Sabtu, 15 Maret 2014

TUGAS BAHASA INGGRIS BISNIS 2

NAMA   : INEU MAELANI
KELAS  : 4EA21
NPM     :  13210547



TENSES
Tenses dalam bahasa inggris memiliki kekhususan tersendiri  dibanding dengan bahasa indonesia. Tenses merupakan suatu bentuk kata kerja dalam tata bahasa yang menunjukan waktu terjadinya suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa dan tahap penyelesaiannya. Banyaknya ragam pembagian tenses atas waktu waktunya membuat bahasa inggris menjadi sangat kompleks. 
1 SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Simple present tense digunakan untuk mengungkapkan/ menggambarkan suatu peristiwa/kejadian/kebiasaan setiap saat sekarang dalam bentuk yang paling sederhana dan merupakan tindakan atau aktivitas sehari-hari atau yang dilakukan berulang-ulang.
Rumus :
Kalimat Verbal
(+) Subject+Verb 1 (s/es)+Object
(-) Subject+do/does not+V1
(?) Do/does+Subject+V1
 Kalimat Nominal
(+) Subject+to be+noun, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+to be+not+noun, adjective, adverb
(?) To be+Subject+noun, adjective, adverb
Contoh :
Kalimat Verbal
(+) The cat eats little meat in the room
(-) She does not come here
(?) Does he go to Bali every weekend ?
Kalimat Nominal
(+) She is very rich
(-) I am not a doctor
(?) Are you a new student here ?
2 PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat ini dan peristiwa atau kegiatan yang akan segera terjadi/ dilaksanakan.
Rumus :
(+) Subject+to be (is/am/are)+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+to be+not+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(?) To be+subject+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
 Contoh Kalimat :
(+) He is playing guitar now
(-) They are not watching TV
(?) Is she singing a song for us ?

3 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present perfect tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan telah selesai dikerjakan pada waktu sekarang.
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+have/has+been/Verb-3+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+have/has+not+been/V-3+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Have/has+Subject+V-3+object, adjective, adverb
 Contoh Kalimat
(+) She has seen this movie three times
(-) Dian has not lived in the sam house for five years
(?) Has he read the book ?



4 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE                                                         
Present perfect continous tense digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan dalam waktu lampau dan masih terus dikerjakan diwaktu sekarang.                                                  
Rumus :
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+have/has+been+Verb-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+have/has+not+been+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Have/has+been+Subject+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh Kalimat :
(+) The government has been trying hard to cope with the problems
(-) He has not been working since an hour ago
(?) Has he been practising taekwondo for two hours

5 SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada saat tertentu di waktu lampau.
 Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+Verb-2+ object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+did not+V-1+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Did+Subject+Verb-1+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh kalimat
(+) Mr. Agus bought this car last year
(-) They did not invite her to the party
(?) Did the students understand your lesson ?
6 PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi atau kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan disaat tertentu diwaktu lampau
 Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+be (was/were)+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+was/were+not+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Was/were+Subject+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh Kalimat
(+) He was playing with the kids when she came home
(-) I were not  writing a letter when my brother arrived
(?) Was she singing a song when her parents came ?

7 PAST PERFECT TENSE
Untuk menyatakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang telah terjadi / selesai diwaktu lampau, pada waktu kegiatan lain terjadi/ dilakukan
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+had+been/V-3+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+had+not+been/V-3+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Had+subject+V-3+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh kalimat
(+) The train had left before i arrived
(-) I had not copied the lesson before she came home
(?) Had I swabbed floor when you arrived ?

8 PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang masih dilanjutkan diwaktu lampau pada waktu kegiatan lain terjadi.
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+had+been+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+had+not+been+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Had+subject+been+ V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh Kalimat :
(+) I had been doing homework for 30 minutes when you called yesterday
(-) We had not been playing football when there was a storm
(?) Had mother been cooking when i came ?

9 SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
Untuk menyatakan peristiwa/kegiatan yang akan terjadi / dikerjakan diwaktu yang akan datang
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+will/shall+be/Verb-1+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+will/shall+not+be/Verb-1+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Will/shall+Subject+be/V-1+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh kalimat :
(+) I will invite you tomorrow
(-) We shall not go to Jakarta next week
(?) Will he go to Papua next month ?

10 FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sedang dikerjakan diwaktu yang akan datang
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+will/shall+be+Verb-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+will/shall+not+be+Verb-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Will/shall+Subject+be+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh Kalimat :
(+) He will be having a meeting tomorrow afternoon
(-) Dina will not going to course next week
(?) Will she singing a song tonight ?
11 FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang akan telah selesai dikerjakan pada waktu yang akan datang
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+will/shall+have+V-3+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+will/shall+not+have+Verb-3+object, adjective, adverb
(?) Will/shall+Subject+have+V-3+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh kalimat
(+) They will have finished their work by Monday
(-) She will not have bought a book
(?) Will Reny not have been at market ?

12 FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang telah dimulai dan masih terus dikerjakan diwaktu yang akan datang.
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+will/shall+have+been+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
(-) Subject+will/shall+not+have+been+Verb-ing+object, adj, adverb
(?) Will/shall+Subject+have+been+V-ing+object, adjective, adverb
Contoh kalimat :
(+) We will have been living here for two years by the end of this year
(-) She will not have been studying english for three weeks
(?) Will they have been choosing the chairman ?
13 PAST FUTURE TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang akan dikerjakan di waktu lampau, seandainya
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+should/would+Verb-1
(-) Subject+should/would+not+V-1
(?) Would/should+Subject+V-1
Contoh kalimat
(+) He would join her if he finished the meeting on time
(-) I would not come
(?) Would she arrive yesterday ?
14 PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sedang dikerjakan di waktu lampau, seandainya
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+should/would+be+Verb-ing
(-) Subject+should/would+not+be+Verb-ing
(?) Would/should+Subject+be+Verb-ing
Contoh Kalimat
(+) He would be waiting for you if you came last night
(-) She would not be going with him if he cheat her
(?) Would mother be  cooking when i came ?
15 PAST FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang telah selesai dikerjakan diwaktu lampau
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+should/would+have+Verb-3
(-) Subject+should/would+not+have+Verb3
(?) Would/should+Subject+have+Verb3
Contoh Kalimat
(+) She would have cooked his favorite dish if she had time to shop
(-) He would not have  asked her to marry him if she had left him
(?) Would she have come here if she had called him ?
16 PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Pola Kalimat
(+) Subject+should/would+have+been+Verb-ing
(-) Subject+should/would+not+have+been+ Verb-ing
(?) Would/should+Subject+have+been+Verb-ing
Contoh Kalimat
(+) Dani  would have been working for 6 years when he get fired
(-) He would not have been practising singing if he had been ill
(?) Would Chris have been working for 6 years when he get fired?

SUMBER :
http://javasun3.wordpress.com/2010/03/03/rumus-16-tenses-bahasa-inggris/
http://afaafahhb.wordpress.com/2013/04/02/16-tenses-in-english-2/

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